LATE MING DYNASTY KRAAK CHARGER c1635-50
Rinaldi, Border IX, with "Dutch Flowers"
Central roundel with a vase of carnations, tulips and various flora with 3 butterflies, surrounded by a border of floral scrolls, including tulips
Outer border with eight large panels : four with Iznik style flowers and figures carrying fish and various goods
Outer border with eight large panels : four with Iznik style flowers and figures carrying various goods
Verso with 7 large well painted tulip sections instead of 8, divided by narrow panels of lingzhi and bamboo and one floral
The so-called *"Dutch Flowers", stylized flowers appearing as "tulips and carnations"
relates to flowers painted on the Iznik wares of the mid-16th century.
Iznik (ancient Nicea, about 16 miles southeast of Istanbul)
had been well known for the most beautiful wares and tiles of the Ottoman period.
Their tiles typically included stylized tulips, carnations and lotus.
quite similar to those depicted on this Ming Kraak porcelain, made for the West.
Tulips are natives of Turkey. In the last quarter of the 16th century
tulips were introduced into Holland.
By the 1630's, tulips had become a tremendous craze,
with people willing to pay exorbitant prices for them –
even causing the world's first financial bubble.
It is also about that time that the stylized tulip and carnation
appeared on Delft and well as Chinese porcelains
A c1635 V.O.C. record has been found requesting a design to be copied.
The Dutch had not previously interfered with the choice of decoration.
It is almost certain that the design requested contained the Iznik (or Dutch) flowers.
Further, a 1639 V.O.C. document from Batavia to Formosa instructed the Dutch merchants
in Formosa to buy wares painted with "Dutch Flowers" :
which included stylized tulips, carnations and other flora.
At this time on Kraak porcelain, flower scrolls began to replace diapering.
Depicting "distance" began to reflect Western methods of perspective,
the illusion implied by proportionately smaller sizes as objects moved back in space.
Also the figures became more active – working, carrying things,
and actively visiting rather than still and contemplating-
all present in this example.
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