Or "moving pictures"..... wherein art and technology merge.

Such a union is commonplace and taken for granted in today's life.

We "marvel" (perhaps) only at the special effects - 2001 : A Space Odyssey; Hobbit.

But let us take a look at movies' predecessor - the modern "marvel" of 1823 :

"The Portable Panorama"

Until this time, single images had portrayed a scene, only from a stationary viewpoint.

The newly introduced "Panorama" depicts a continuous story

from the moving traveler's multiple viewpoints :

that is - a sequence of images, unrolling on a single elongated sheet.

The first - in short - "Movie"!


May we introduce :

COSTA SCENA : A Cruise Along the Southern Coast of Kent



A Cased Strip Panorama, An Aquatint

"Dedicated to His Most Gracious Majesty George IV",

The Scenes Taken from Nature By Robert Havell Jr.*, Published London, 1823


Consisting of seven conjoined sheets unrolling to depict (from moving viewpoints)

the departure of George IV aboard the Royal George, on his 1822 state visit to Scotland,

from Greenwich down the Thames;

and an accompanying steamboat veering eastward through stormy waters to Calais;

housed in a lacquered-paper covered cylindrical treen case depicting Britannia,

her shield with a roundel portrait of George IV,

accompanied by Neptune holding a trident,

 riding in a shell drawn by two horses with tails,

and being driven by a putto;

the paper watermarked J WHATMAN, 1821; the title panel illegibly inscribed


3 Inches High x 18.25 Feet Long



King's Yacht (ref 5) : "The Royal George", being towed by the steamboat "Comet"

as it departs from Greenwich, accompanied by the regatta, on the journey to Scotland.


Portrait George IV, David Wilkie, 1828, The Royal Trust Collection


Portrait of George IV

wearing the Scottish kilt during the depicted trip to Edinburgh, 1822

(Sir David Wilkie, Dec. 1828, Royal Collection Trust) .

This was the first official visit of a reigning English monarch to Scottish soil for two centuries.

After the English defeat of the Jacobite movement at Culloden (April 1746),

 the wearing of the kilts and clan plaids had been banned in all of Scotland.



Robert Havell Jr, White Heron, from Audubon's 'Birds of America'


*Robert Havell, Jr. (1793 - 1878) was the principal engraver of Audubon's 'Birds of America',

perhaps the most significant natural history publication of all time.

Above is Havell's familiar aquatint engraving of Audubon's "White Heron",

a precise and elegant glimpse into the natural world of the American wetland bird.

From "Birds of America", John James Audubon, #386 "White Heron".




Please click the above panorama images for more information and images.


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Costa Scena : A Cruise Along the Southern Coast of Kent, Robert Havell Jr., London, 1823